Friday, June 23, 2017

A Visit to Grand Marais

This time last week my friend Kathleen and I were in Grand Marais, a town on Minnesota's North Shore of Lake Superior. It's a beautiful area of the state, and one which I had not visited since 2004.

The area is renowned for its alternating rocky cliffs and cobblestone beaches, with forested hills and ridges through which rivers and waterfalls descend as they flow to Lake Superior.

Above: With Judy, a friend of both Kathleen and I. Judy lives in the woods outside of the town of Finlayson, MN. We stayed with her on Thursday night, June 15, on our way to the North Shore. We greatly enjoyed and appreciated Judy's hospitality. Thanks, Judy!

About the history of the North Shore's indigenous populations, Wikipedia notes the following:

Lake Superior was settled by Native Americans about 8000 BCE when the Wisconsin Glaciers began to retreat. By 500 BCE the Laurel people had established settlements in the area and had begun to trade metal with other native peoples. The Laurel people were animists and probably created many of the pictographs present on rock faces along the North Shore and other Canadian rock faces in order to communicate with spirits.

In the 12th century, on the easternmost portion of the North Shore, the ancestors of the Ojibwa migrated into the area. These people left behind small pits dug in the ground which archaeologists now call Pukaskwa Pits. On the Minnesotan portion of the North Shore there are only three archaeological sites, so it cannot be determined who lived there at the time.

By the 18th century the Ojibwa had settled the length of the North Shore approximately as far as the modern Canadian–Minnesotan Border. The Minnesota portion of the North Shore was settled mostly by the Cree, while the Dakota lived to the south.

Whenever I visit an area I try to support the local artist community, and Grand Marais is quite the art colony. Accordingly, when in Grand Marais last weekend, I purchased a print of Howard Sivertson's artwork entitled "Solitude" (right).

Raised as a third generation commercial fisherman in Washington Harbor on Isle Royale, Sivertson works primarily in watercolor and oils either on location or in his Grand Marais studio. As both a landscape and narrative artist, he paints the scenes and historical events of the North Shore, Isle Royale, and the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness.

In a number of published books, including Once Upon an Isles (1992), The Illustrated Voyageur (1994), Tales of the Old North Shore (1996), Schooners, Skiffs & Steamships: Stories Along Lake Superior Water Trails, and Driftwood: Stories Picked Up Along the Shore (2008), Sivertson uses both artwork and text to narrate local history.

Above: Grand Marais Harbor – Friday, June 16, 2017.

Grand Marais, population approx. 1,400, is French for "Great Marsh," a reference to a marsh that, in early fur-trading times, was situated at the head of the town's harbor. The Ojibwe name for the area is Gichi-biitoobiig, which means "great duplicate water," "parallel body of water" or "double body of water" (like a bayou), a reference to the two bays which form the large harbor off Lake Superior.

Some more interesting details about Grand Marais, courtesy of Wikipedia:

The land surrounding Grand Marais slopes up to form the Sawtooth Bluff, a dramatic rock face visible from nearly any vantage point in the city. Adjacent to the bluff is Pincushion Mountain, a large bald monolith with dramatic views of Lake Superior and the inland wilderness.

Grand Marais Harbor is protected by Artist's Point, a barrier island formed by lava that was connected to the mainland by gravel deposited by lake currents, forming a tombolo. An Arctic–alpine disjunct community survives there.

Road access to Grand Marais is by Minnesota Highway 61, which heads northeast, following the shore of Lake Superior, and is known as the North Shore Scenic Drive. The Gunflint Trail (Cook County Road 12) begins in Grand Marais and heads northwest, away from the lake and into the Boundary Waters region.

Grand Marais is located 110 miles northeast of Duluth and 40 miles southwest of the Canada–US border.

Above: Grand Marais Harbor – Friday, June 16, 2017.

Above: The Shoreline Inn, our lodgings in Grand Marais.

Above and below: Views of Grand Marais – June 16-17, 2017.

Above and below: Kathleen and I at Cascade Falls State Park – Friday, June 16, 2017.


See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
Days of Summer on the Bayfield Peninsula (2013)
Sunday in Duluth (2010)
Trempealeau (2009)
Northwoods (2008)

Related Off-site Links:
Walking the Old Road: The Story of Chippewa City and the Grand Marais (2010-2011).
Anishinaabe Way: Lives, Words and Stories of Ojibwe
The Sivertson Gallery: Art of the North.
Things to Do On the North Shore, Mile by MileNorth Shore Visitor (2017).

Tuesday, June 20, 2017

Quote of the Day

I go out of my way to avoid police, because I don’t know how to physically act around them. Do I hold my hands in the air and get shot, Do I kneel and get shot? Do I reach for my ID and get shot? Do I say I’m an English teacher and get shot? Do I tell them everything I am about to do, and get shot? Do I assume that seven of them will still feel threatened by one of me, and get shot? Do I simply stand and be big black guy and get shot? Do I fold my arms and squeeze myself into smaller and get shot? Do I be a smartass and get shot? Do I leave my iPhone on a clip of me on Seth Meyers, so I can play it and say, see, that’s me. I’m one of the approved black guys. And still get shot?

And when I do get shot and killed, do black and brown people take it as a given that the cop will get off, tune out of the story from this point, and leave the outrage at the inevitable verdict to white people? Because white people still look at fear of black skin as one of their rights, and god help you if that skin moves. Because cops, the lethal arm of this society, along with neighborhood watchdogs, and white neighbors with phones, get the privilege to always act on any fear, no matter how ridiculous, and society always gives them the benefit of the doubt and the not guilty verdict. Because brewing fresh outrage every morning is not a privilege people of colour get to have. The situations that cause outrage never go away for us. It never stuns us, never comes out of the blue. We don’t get to be appalled because only people expecting better get appalled.

Marlon James
Excerpted from "Smaller, and Smaller, and Smaller"
via Facebook
June 17, 2017

Related Off-site Links:
Author Marlon James Offers Biting Critique of Minnesota Racism After Philando Castile Case – Susan Hoga (The Washington Post, June 20, 2017).
Marlon James Writes About Being "Big," Black and Minnesotan In the Age of Philando Castile – Mike Mullen (City Pages, June 19, 2017).
Dashcam Footage of Philando Castile Shooting Released – Breanna Edwards (The Root, June 20, 2017).
Philando Castile and the Terror of an Ordinary Day – Elise C. Boddie (The New York Times, June 20, 2017).
Interviews Contradict Jeronimo Yanez Trial Testimony He Saw Philando Castile’s Gun – Susan Du (City Pages, June 20, 2017).
The Acquittal Verdict In the Philando Castile Case Is an Abomination – Daniel Payne (The Federalist, June 19, 2017).
White People, the Philando Castile Acquittal Should Make You Mad as Hell – Zenobia Jeffries (Yes!, June 19, 2017).
The White Parallel Universe of a Traffic Stop – Samuel G. Freedman (The Chicago Tribune, June 19, 2017).
“Minnesota Nice” and Minnesota’s Racism – Andrea Plaid (Twin Cities Daily Planet, November 5, 2015).
The Stages of What Happens When There’s Injustice Against Black PeopleAwesomely Luvvie (December 4, 2014).
The Body Count Rises In the U.S. War Against Black People – Ajamu Baraka (Counter Punch, June 20, 2017).

UPDATES: 7 Seconds. That's How Long It Took to Kill a Compliant Black Man Carrying a Legal Gun – Will Bunch (Philadelphia Inquirer and Daily News, June 21, 2017).
On Philando Castile, Terror and the Trauma That Remains – Allyson Hobbs (The Root, June 21, 2017).
"It Broke Me": The Daily Show Host Trevor Noah’s Emotional Reaction to Philando Castile Dashcam Video – Marlow Stearn (The Daily Beast, June 22, 2017).
After Cop Shot Castile, 4-Year-Old Worried Her Mom Would Be Next – Madison Park (CNN, June 22, 2017).
After Philando Castile's Death, Investigators Tried to Secretly Get Access to Diamond Reynolds' Facebook and Phone Records – Kate Conger (Gizmodo, June 22, 2017).
Our Fear of Black Men Is Racist, and It Killed Philando Castile – John Halstead (The Huffington Post, June 22, 2017).

See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
Quote of the Day – June 17, 2017
"This Doesn't Happen to White People"
Remembering Philando Castile and Demanding Abolition of the System That Targets and Kills People of Color
Quote of the Day – March 31, 2016
Something to Think About – December 29, 2015
Quote of the Day – November 25, 2015
"We Are All One" – #Justice4Jamar and the 4th Precinct Occupation: Photos, Reflections and Links
An Update on #Justice4Jamar and the 4th Precinct Occupation
Rallying in Solidarity with Eric Garner and Other Victims of Police Brutality
"Say Her Name" Solidarity Action for Sandra Bland
In Minneapolis, Rallying in Solidarity with Black Lives in Baltimore
Thoughts on Prayer in a "Summer of Strife"

Image: Marlon James photographed by Jeffrey Skemp.

Sunday, June 18, 2017

Tony Enos on Understanding the Two Spirit Community

Above: Tony Enos, pictured earlier this year in front of the Two-Spirit Nation camp at Oceti Sakowin. (Photo: Tony Enos)

The Wild Reed's 2017 Queer Appreciation series continues with words (and music) of insight and hope from Tony Enos (right), a Cherokee and Native Philadelphian singer/songwriter and dancer who identifies as a Two Spirit person.

Enos is dedicated to fostering healing for the Two Spirit community and educating those beyond this community about Two Spirit people and the integral part they have long played in tribal social structures. In 2015, as part of his mission to heal and educate, Enos released the single “Two Spirit,” which he describes as “a song for the movement, welcoming Two Spirits from all Nations back into the sacred hoop.”

In the following excerpt from a recent Indian Country Today article, Enos presents eight misconceptions and/or things that are important to know about Two Spirit people. Such awareness, he says, may help foster a better understanding of the Two Spirit community.


Two Spirit is not a contemporary “new-age” movement

While the term Two Spirit was coined in 1990 in Winnipeg, Canada as a means of unifying various gender identities and expressions of Native American/First Nations/Indigenous individuals, the term is not a specific definition of gender, sexual orientation or other self-determining catch-all phrase, but rather an umbrella term.

Two Spirit people have both a male and female spirit within them and are blessed by their Creator to see life through the eyes of both genders.

The term does not diminish the tribal-specific names, roles and traditions nations have for their own Two Spirit people. Examples of such names are the winkte among the Lakota and the nadleeh among the Navajo people.

These names and roles go back to a time before western religion. Two Spirit is not a “New Age” movement, but rather a reclamation of Two Spirit’s rightful place in Native culture.

We have proof of Two Spirit individuals in historical photos

A quick google search will render black and whites from decades ago with Two Spirit tribal members from various nations, such as We’wha [right], a very well-known and documented Two Spirit of the Zuni people, who crossed over in 1896.

Gay is not an interchangeable term with Two Spirit

Being a gay native is oftentimes confused with being Two Spirit. While the two may have parallels and intersections, they are not the same. Gay specifically is about attraction to a person of the same sex. Two Spirit is more about the embodiment of two genders residing within one person.

A Two Spirit person may be gay, but a gay person is not necessarily Two Spirit. Claiming the role of Two Spirit is to take up the spiritual responsibility that the role traditionally had. Walking the red road, being for the people and our children/youth, and being a guiding force in a good way with a good mind are just some of those responsibilities.

Above: Two Spirit Dancers prepare, from the film Two Spirits.

The Two Spirit Road is a road of long held traditions, prayer and responsibility

Living as a Two Spirit is not all pride parades and hot pants. To be of service to our elders and youth with our very particular medicine is paramount. If we lose our traditions, our songs, our medicines, and our languages, and make no effort to restore what was lost, we doom ourselves.

In 2016 Two Spirit nation at Oceti Sakowin built the Cannonball River prayer pier, to be used for water ceremonies. Knee deep in mud on a cold 2016 November morning, the Two Spirit camp worked till sundown, so that our women and elders could have a place to pray the following morning. Actual events such a this are now part of our modern history as Two Spirit people and should never be minimized. As with all of Native culture, Two Spirit is also a living culture.

Two Spirit people held significant roles and were an integral part of a tribal social structures

Two Spirit people held a meaningful place in the sacred hoop. In many tribes Two Spirits were balance keepers. Thought to be the “dusk” between the male morning, and the female evening. As the role has evolved over time as necessary, the tradition is still alive. At Two Spirit gatherings and communal events, we can be found saying prayers that have needed to be said for decades, and fostering healing to all present. Restoring much needed balance to spirit.

Above: Tony Enos (center), the activist and educator, with other members of the East Coast Two Spirit Society at New York City Pride 2016. (Photo: Cliff Matias)

Two Spirit Does Not Indicate Colonized Boxed Definitions of “L”, “G”, “B”, “T” or “Q”

We can be all of these, or none of these. A western mindset categorizes based on standards of ‘norm’ and ‘other’ in a kyriarchal (to rule or dominate) type structure. This mindset imposes a series of boxes to fit into (you’re either gay, you’re a lesbian, etc.) rather than being comfortable with gender fluidity, Two Spirit acknowledges the continuum of gender identity and expression.

Above: The East Coast Two Spirit Society at New York City Pride 2015.

Two Spirit is a term only appropriate for Native people

Two Spirit is a role that existed in a Native American/First Nations/Indigenous tribe for gender queer, gender fluid, and gender non-conforming tribal members. If you don’t have a tribe, you can’t claim that role.

Two Spirit People face compounded trauma’s on top of inter-generational trauma

Imagine going from your nation where you’re a celebrated Two Spirit individual, to a boarding school where you’re assigned your gender, with any push back about it being beat out of you. For a lot of our boarding school survivors (and those who didn’t survive), this was their reality. As a result, there is still healing from much internalized socio-political stigma, phobia, and lateral oppression to be done in the Two Spirit community.

The resilience, strength, and sheer indomitable will of Two Spirit people is something to be shared with all nations. When you watch the sun rise every day, the sun set every evening, and the moon come out each night, remember the miracle of Two Spirit people. Not unnatural, not evil, or perverse, just all things in balance, and everything in divine order.


Above: Tony Enos – the singer, dancer, and model – in a 2015 promotional photo.

Said Enos in a 2016 interview with Lisa J. Ellwood of Indian Country Today:

[I]t was difficult growing up [and] being “different” from other kids. I was outnumbered by bullies and I got teased a lot for being a native two-spirit with my body type. My father, who is part Cherokee, never wanted to discuss our Native lineage. Whenever I pushed the issue it turned into a huge argument, which is one of the reasons why our relationship is still on the mend today. I felt very isolated and being disconnected from my Native culture was hard, which is why I cherish it so much today.

I always knew I was “different” from other boys as far back as I can remember. I just had an innate awareness of myself and everyone around me pretty much knew I wasn’t your typical kid. At 11-years-old I came out to my family and I can’t say that anyone was shocked (lol!). Although once I confirmed who I was to them, there were some family members who found it more difficult to accept than others.

. . . We're two spirits but one heart;
One love, one voice.
We're all different but the same,
so difference shouldn't stand
in the way of love.
Celebrate me, celebrate you.

Related Off-site Links:
Queer Arts Festival Reflects a Vision of Two Spirits – Holly McKenzie-Sutter (The Georgia Straight, June 14, 2017).
Joining the Annual Gathering of the Two Spirit Society in Montana – Chadwick Moore (Out, November 24, 2016).
Photographic Portraits of Two Spirit Native Americans – Luke Gilford.
Before European Christians Forced Gender Roles, Native Americans Acknowledged 5 GendersNative American Stuff (2017).
Gender Variance Around the World Over Time – Lucy Diavolo (Teen Vogue, June 21, 2017).

See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
North America: Perhaps Once the "Queerest Continent on the Planet"
Clyde Hall: "All Gay People, in One Form or Another, Have Something to Give to This World, Something Rich and Very Wonderful"
Quote of the Day – November 12, 2011
John Corvino on the "Always and Everywhere" Argument Against Gay Marriage
Same-Sex Desires: "Immanent and Essential Traits Transcending Time and Culture"

Friday, June 16, 2017

Quote of the Day

The system continues to fail black people, and it will continue to fail you all. My son loved this city and this city killed my son and the murderer gets away. . . . I'm mad as hell right now.

– Valerie Castile
Quoted in Merrit Kennedy's article,
"Minnesota Police Officer Jeronimo Yanez
Found Not Guilty in Shooting Death
of Philando Castile
Minnesota Public Radio News
June 16, 2017

Related Off-site Links:
Philando Castile’s Killer Acquitted Despite Forensics That Contradicted His Case – Jeremy Stahl (Slate, June 16, 2017).
Philando Castile Verdict a Painful Result of Laws Rigged to Protect Cops – Shaun King (New York Daily News, June 16, 2017).
Community Reacts to Not Guilty Verdict in Yanez Trial – Hannah Covington (Star Tribune, June 16, 2017).
18 Arrested in I-94 Shutdown Protest After Jeronimo Yanez’s AcquittalPioneer Press (June 16, 2017).
There is No Justice in America for Black People Killed by Cops – Julia Craven (The Huffington Post, June 16, 2017).
U.S. Attorney's Office Considering Federal Review of Yanez, June 16, 2017).
Why Police Officers Aren't Held Accountable When They Kill People – Zoe Samudzi Teen Vogue (June 16, 2017).
White People Get to Juggle for the Cops. Black People Have to Fear Them – April Reign (Star Tribune, March 13, 2017).
To Make Black Lives Matter, We Must Tear Down the Case Law that Gave Police the Power to Stop, Search, and Abuse – Matthew Segal (American Civil Liberties Union, July 27, 2016).

UPDATES: The Acquittal in Philando Castile’s Killing Makes Clear That Black Lives Still Do Not Matter – Eugene Robinson (The Washington Post, June 17, 2017).
Grim Echoes for Families: An Officer Shoots and a Jury Acquits – Mitch Smith, Yamiche Alcindor and Jack Healy (The New York Times, June 17, 2017).
The Philando Castile Verdict Was a Miscarriage of Justice – David French (National Review, June 17, 2017).
After Acquittal in Castile Case, Activists Find Reasons for Hope Amid a Sense of Defeat – Jared Goyette (The Washington Post, June 17, 2017).
Philando Castile Should Be the NRA's Perfect Cause Célèbre. There's Just One Problem – Leon Neyfakh (Slate, June 17, 2017).
Colin Kaepernick Compares Modern Cops to Runaway Slave Patrol After Castile Verdict – John Breech (, June 17, 2017).
Civil Rights Lawyer: Philando Castile's Skin Color Ended Up Being a Death SentenceDemocracy Now! (June 19, 2017).
The Acquittal Verdict In the Philando Castile Case Is an Abomination – Daniel Payne (The Federalist, June 19, 2017).

See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
"This Doesn't Happen to White People"
Quote of the Day – March 31, 2016
Remembering Philando Castile and Demanding Abolition of the System That Targets and Kills People of Color

Image 1: Ralph Wyman (Minnesota State Capitol, June 16, 2017).
Image 2: Valerie Castile looks at a photo button of her son Philando during a press conference on the state Capitol grounds in Saint Paul, Minnesota, July 12, 2016. (Photo: Eric Miller/Reuters)

Thursday, June 15, 2017

Monday, June 12, 2017

On the First Anniversary of the Pulse Gay Nightclub Massacre, Orlando Martyrs Commemorated in Artist Tony O'Connell's “Triptych for the 49”

Above: "Triptych for the 49" by Tony O’Connell.

The Wild Reed's 2017 Queer Appreciation series continues with the highlighting of a special work of art commemorating the "Orlando martyrs," the 49 people shot to death a year ago today at the Pulse gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida. The incident also saw over 50 people injured. The Pulse nightclub site is now in the process of being made into a permanent memorial and museum.

Right: Commemorating the Orlando shooting victims: Johnpaul Vazquez, right, and his boyfriend Yazan Sale, sit by Lake Eola, in downtown Orlando. (Photo: Carolyn Cole/Getty Images)

The June 12, 2016 shooting at Pulse is the deadliest by a single shooter in U.S. history, and the second deadliest in world history, after the 2011 Norway attacks. The incident is also recognized as the deadliest attack on LGBT people in United States history and the worst mass killing of LGBT people in the west since the Holocaust.

The artwork I highlight this evening is by Tony O’Connell (left), and I must acknowledge and thank Kittredge Cherry and her wonderful online resource, Q Spirit, for first highlighting O’Connell's work in her June 8 post, "Orlando Martyrs: Pulse Gay Nightclub Massacre Remembered in New Artwork 'Triptych for the 49'" (Kittredge has previously highlighted the art of O'Connell. See, for example, here and here.)

Writes Kittredge about O'Connell's latest piece:

One of the newest and most spiritually powerful artworks about the Orlando martyrs is “Triptych for the 49,” a mixed media piece by gay artist Tony O’Connell of Liverpool. It is a shrine shaped like three-part altarpiece. The artist is mounting images of each martyr on reclaimed closet doors, along with queer saints Sebastian and Joan of Arc as “wrathful protector saints.”

O’Connell is working to finish it in time for a private showing on the anniversary of the massacre on June 12. A public exhibit is being planned for later this year. The artist will keep posting updates and new photos of “Triptych for the 49” on O’Connell’s Orlando Martyrs Facebook page as he completes and exhibits the work.

The Orlando martyrs speak to society today through Tony O’Connell’s art. “The world has changed very much in my life but Orlando reminds us that we are all still more vulnerable than polite liberal straight society would like to admit. I think every gay person must have been scarred by the massacre because it reminds us again that there is hate specifically directed at us,” he explained to the Jesus in Love Blog at Q Spirit.

In his new creation, O’Connell made haunting digital images with blue haloes inside Gothic window shapes framing the faces of each person who died in the Orlando shooting. He will arrange them in rows on the central panel, flanked by the guardian saints on two hinged panels. Gold leaf ornamentation adds to the air of sanctity. The whole triptych stands almost six feet tall.

The repetition of the format for all 49 faces allows the individuality of each victim shine through. The viewer’s heart and attention are drawn here and there to connect with different souls: the one in the pink shirt, the one with tattoos, the one with the bowtie . . .

Like standard religious icons, they gaze directly into the viewer’s eyes, seeming to invite conversation. Icons are traditionally considered to be “windows to heaven,” and O’Connell’s commemorative altarpiece provides a glimpse into a queer hereafter.
It is no accident that O’Connell made his shrine to the Orlando martyrs out of wood once used as closet doors. “At some level coming out of the closet is always a revolutionary act of courage because each LGBT person knows on whatever level that the choice to come out could invite potential rejection, or violence or even worse,” he said.

Rainbow haloes indicate that the large figures guarding the martyrs are LGBTQ saints: Sebastian Joan of Arc. Sebastian is a favorite theme in O’Connell’s art and spirituality. He re-enacted the saint’s martyrdom with a sculptural Sebastian to condemn violence against LGBTQ people in a 2015 performance art film. It included a “Litany of the Queer Saints.” He may write a new litany for the Orlando martyrs.

Raised Roman Catholic, O’Connell was rejected by the church when he came out as gay in his teens. He has been a practicing Buddhist since 1995. Much of O’Connell’s work deals with affirming the holiness of LGBTQ lives.

To read Kittredge Cherry article highlighting Tony O'Connell's "Triptych for the 49" and other artists' tributes to the Orlando martyrs, click here.

Above and below: Memorials in front of Pulse nightclub in Orlando.
(Photos: John Raoux/AP and Joe Burbank/Orlando Sentinel/TNS/Getty Images)

NEXT: Part III – Tony Enos on Understanding
the Two Spirit Community

Related Off-site Links:
For Those We Lost and Those Who Survived: The Pulse Massacre One Year Later – James Michael Nichols (The Huffington Post, June 10, 2017).
Remembering the Orlando 49Orlando Weekly (June 12, 2017).
One Year On: Orlando's Remarkable Tributes to the 49 Lives Lost in Pulse Shooting – Chloe Sargeant (SBS, June 12, 2017).
Remembering the 49 People Who Died in Orlando’s Pulse Nightclub Attack – Katie Mettler (The Washington Post via TruthDig, June 12, 2017).
Praying for Orlando, One Year Later – Robert Shine (Bondings 2.0, June 12, 2017).
We Prayed For Orlando. Now, Let’s Never Forget Orlando – Marcos Saldivar (The Huffington Post, June 12, 2017).
A Night of Terror, a Year of Racism – Michael Hamar (Michael-In-Norfolk, June 12, 2017).
Gay Pride Celebrations Worldwide to Honor Orlando, One Year After Pulse Nightclub Attack – Jim Farber (, June 1, 2017).
QLatinx Has United Orlando's Queer Latinos in Year Since Pulse Nightclub Shooting – Christopher Cuevas (Mic, June 12, 2017).
Looking Back to the Pulse Shooting Through the Eyes of a Queer Black Muslim – Devyn Springer (Think Progress, June 12, 2017).
One Year After Pulse Massacre in Orlando, FBI Hasn't Publicly Addressed Its Counterterrorism Failures – Trevor Aaronson (The Intercept, June 12, 2017).
One Year On We Remember This Guy Who Saved 70 people in Orlando Shootings. His Name Is Imran YousufIKnowBro, June 12, 2017).
Pulse Survivor Keinon Carter Went From Being Declared Dead at the Hospital to Opening a Center for Black LGBTQ Youth – Monivette Cordeiro (Orlando Weekly, June 7, 2017).
Pulse: The Orlando Shooting and the Intersection of Multiple Violences – Hugo Córdova Quero (Gemrip, June 2016).
A Year After Pulse, We Are More Than Survivors – Audrey Juarez ( via Common Dreams, June 13, 2017).
Pulse Anniversary: Church Plays Wounding Role to LGBT People – John Gehring (National Catholic Reporter via Common Dreams, June 13, 2017).

See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
"I Pray, I Pray"
Quote of the Day – June 12, 2016
In the WAke of Orlando, Two Powerful Calls for the Catholic Hierarchy to Fully Acknowledge the LGBT Victims of Anti-LGBT Violence
Quote of the Day – June 13, 2017
Multiple Claims Suggest That Orlando Killer Was Also a Victim of Homophobia – His Own
Prayer of the Week – June 19, 2016
Discerning and Embodying Sacred Presence in Times of Violence and Strife
The Ashes of Our Martyrs
"I Will Dance"

Yesterday's "Wild Weather Ride"

It was, in the words of MPR meteorologist Ron Trenda, a "wild weather ride" yesterday morning as thunderstorms with strong winds, heavy rain, and hail moved across much of southern and central Minnesota and on into Wisconsin.

I stayed indoors for the duration of the wild weather so the photos I share today were not taken my me. Those who did take them, however, shared them on social media and on the KARE 11 website.

The stunning image above, for instance, was snapped by Michael Thompson who noted the following when he shared it on Facebook.

The big storm rolling into Minneapolis this morning, shot from the parking ramp at 19th Ave S. It looks like the whole city getting swallowed by a giant whale!


Following are a few more images of yesterday "wild weather ride."

Image: Jay Axelrod (Hugo, MN)

Image: Lynsey Sullivan

Image: Justin Luca (Minneapolis)

Image: Nate Anderson (Lake Minnetonka)

Image: Andrea Booth (Minneapolis)

Image: Holly Olson (Otsego, MN)

Image: Victoria Trotter (Minneapolis)

See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
Summer Storms In (2013)
A Wild Afternoon in Minneapolis (2009)
A Record High
Superstorm Sandy: A "Wake-Up Call" on Climate Change

Sunday, June 11, 2017

He's Back!

. . . Ross Poldark, that is! . . . Yes, that "renegade of principle" and the title character of the acclaimed BBC TV series Poldark.

The third season of Poldark begins this evening in the UK on BBC One. It will premiere in Australia one week later, June 18, on ABC TV. Fans of the show in the US will have to wait until October 1, when Poldark returns on PBS Masterpiece. Unfortunately, I have no information re. broadcast dates for other parts of the world, although the Poldarked website is an excellent resource for updates.

Right: Ellise Chappell as Morwenna Chynoweth on the set of Poldark, season three.

Following is the official BBC One "teaser trailer" for the third season (or series, as they say in the UK) of Poldark.

Poldark is based on Winston Graham's acclaimed series of historical novels set in Cornwall at the turn of the nineteenth century. The first novel introduces the young Captain Ross Poldark as a battle-scarred veteran of the American War who, upon returning in 1783 to his derelict family estate on the windswept coast of Cornwall, discovers his widowed father dead and the woman he loves, Elizabeth (left), engaged to his cousin Francis. Bitterly disappointed and close to financial ruin, Ross nevertheless vows to make the most of what he has.

The first season of Poldark covered the events of the first two books in Graham's 12-book series, and saw Ross rebuilding his family estate by embarking on the risky venture of opening the family's long-derelict copper mine. He also rescues a street urchin named Demelza whom he takes on as his kitchen maid and eventually marries (right), much to the shock of members of his social class.

The third season of Poldark will cover the fifth and sixth novels, The Black Moon and The Four Swans. I recommend all the Poldark novels, but have to admit that The Black Moon is one of my favorites. For one thing it introduces a number of new characters, including Demelza's brothers Sam and Drake Carne, Elizabeth's young cousin Morwenna Chynoweth, the handsome navel officer Hugh Armitage, and the truly odious Rev. Osbourne Whitworth. All of these new characters appear in the following PBS Masterpiece trailer for season three.

I've made no secret on this blog of my great admiration for Graham's Poldark novels. This admiration dates back to when I read them as a teenager. I've revisited them over the years and they've undoubtedly had a marked impact on how I've come to understand many important aspects of life and love (as I explain here, here and here).

The BBC adapted the first seven novels into a highly successful television series in the mid-1970s. At the time, that's how many Poldark novels Winston Graham had written, starting in 1945. He would go on to write five more before his death in 2003. That's twelve novels over a period of 57 years. Quite an achievement, especially given the consistently high quality of his writing.

The new BBC adaptation premiered in 2015 year to overwhelmingly positive reviews in the U.K., Australia and elsewhere. The Telegraph's Allison Pearson even went so far as to declare Poldark "one of those rare occasions when a popular drama series delivers something that properly belongs to art."

It's been said that this new adaptation will eventually cover all twelve Poldark novels. If this indeed happens then it will be quite the feat, as the novels cover a period of almost 40 years (1783-1820) and a number of major historical events, including the development of the steam engine and the Battle of Waterloo.

Above: Aidan Turner as Ross Poldark.

Writes Emma Marriott in the book, The World of Poldark:

Ross Poldark . . . seems to exemplify the resilience of the human spirit, a man able to fight back at all that is thrown at him. Limping and bearing a scar to his face, Ross returns from three long years of fighting in a war. . . . Though born a gentleman, there is a rebellious side to Ross's nature – but at heart he has integrity, a belief in moral justice and contempt for the petty rules of law. And it is the flouting of these rules and the rigid conventions of society that so often leads him into trouble.

Adds Poldark screenwriter Debbie Horsfield:

[Ross] straddles two different backgrounds. He's a gentleman so he's from the landed gentry but he has huge, not just sympathy, but love for the common man, his tenants, his miners that he employs. He's in love with a girl who's a gentlewoman's daughter, a girl from his own class, but he ends up marrying his kitchen maid. He has a strong sense of justice without in any way being sanctimonious. He's a rebel and everybody loves a rebel.

Says Aidan Turner about the character he plays:

[Ross] admires hard-working people and treats people with respect – no matter what their position in life. He is an original class warrior!"

Hmm . . . Given the recent (and stunning) electoral achievements in the UK of Jeremy Corbyn and his social-democratic policies and social justice message, Ross Poldark appears to be a fitting hero for today!

Above: Eleanor Tomlinson as Demelza.

Says Tomlinson about the relationship between Demelza and Ross:

Ross and Demelza have a realistic relationship and that is what people like about them. It has never been a fairy tale romance. They have a lot of arguments and problems in their marriage but they have a family and so they question what they should do, whether they should stick it out or separate.

Demelza is such an independent female character who makes her own decisions and cuts her own path, and that is what I and the audience love about her. She is a strong woman for a period drama.

Above: Heida Reed as Elizabeth.

Says Reed about the character she plays:

[Season three opens with] Elizabeth on horseback having lost control of her horse. She is heavily pregnant and the question is, how far along is she? There was no way of telling back then. So she is up to a lot of strange activities, getting herself into questionable physical risks just in case the baby comes early she can blame it on the horse having bolted or having fallen down the stairs. She is covering her bases.

Elizabeth [and her second husband George Warleggan] have that kind of ideal, traditional marriage agreement that was very popular at that time; it’s a very eligible match and that fact holds the marriage together. They both respect this kind of arrangement on the basis of it being sensible rather than romantic.

Elizabeth is very much focused on trying to hide her biggest secret, which has an effect on her marriage.

Above: A scene from season three. From left: Aunt Agatha Poldark (Caroline Blakiston); Morwenna Chynoweth (Ellise Chappell); Geoffrey Charles Poldark (Harry Marcus), Elizabeth's son from her first marriage to Francis Poldark; George Warleggan (Jack Farthing), cradling Valentine Warleggan; and Cary Warleggan (Pip Torrens), George's uncle.

Above: Caroline Blakiston as Aunt Agatha.

And what, you may ask, is Agatha Poldark doing in the home of George and Elizabeth Warleggan? Is not the ruthlessly ambitious banker George Warleggan the nemesis of Ross Poldark?

Well, the home in question, Trenwith, is not actually George's house; it's Geoffrey Charles's, the young son of Elizabeth and her first husband, Francis Poldark (left), Ross's cousin. Francis died tragically in a mining mishap in season two. When he married Elizabeth, George opted to make Trenwith their home, in large part to spite Ross.

Ross invited Agatha to live with him and Demelza and their young son Jeremy at their home, Nampara, but the old woman said she would prefer to live out her days in the family's ancestral home . . . and be a daily reminder to "that upstart" George of whose house it really was.

Above: Rev. Osbourne Whitworth (Christian Brassington) and George Warleggan (Jack Farthing).

Says Farthing about the character he plays:

George’s status, power and wealth have grown since the end of the last series and we find George opening his first bank [right].

He is more of a force to be reckoned with financially and socially. He has the woman of his dreams, Elizabeth Poldark (née Chynoweth), and they are expecting a child so he finally has an heir on the way and is living in Trenwith, Francis and Elizabeth’s house. Naturally he is changing the décor, making it a bit wealthier and gaudier.

Above: Luke Norris as Dr. Dwight Enys.

In talking about his character, Norris offers the following insights.

From the inside out, Dwight's got a very honourable and noble instinct. I think a lot of us would like to think they would act similarly if they had the skill and application. He just has the courage to act on it, I suppose.

In the books Ross and Dwight meet in Cornwall but in Debbie Horsfield’s scripts we met at war and it was Dwight who patched up Ross’s face, so she has given their friendship a longer history and increased the importance of it.

At the end of the last series Dwight has been reunited with Caroline but he had already signed up to the Navy and is obliged to go to war. So at the start of series three he is away on his posting, on the Travail.

Above: Gabrielle Wilde as Caroline Penvenen.

"There is a lot of loss for Caroline in this [season]," says Wilde. "She loses her uncle and she begins to believe she has also lost her husband, Dwight Enys, too when he goes to fight in France. Whilst she is struggling with the grief of her loss, she really develops her relationship with Ross and Demelza and cements herself within society in Cornwall, becoming very much a part of that world. With the sadness Caroline endures throughout [season three] we see her grow up a lot."

Above: Josh Whitehouse as Hugh Armitage, a new character in the story and one who will have a marked impact on Demelza.

"Hugh is met by Demelza at the beach when he first returns to Cornwall," says Whitehouse. "[They] really connect and become friends but there is an attraction and he can’t take his eyes off her or deny the way he feels towards her . . . and possibly the way she feels about him."

About the character he plays, Whitehouse says:

I really feel like I can relate to Hugh as he is a creative, he is into the arts and literature and is a genuine romantic. Hugh refers to himself as an artist and I, myself am an artist, and like Hugh I also write poetry and music and so his interests are things we genuinely share.

He is an aristocrat, born into riches and high society but there is a misunderstood part of Hugh’s story and so my aim is to try and get people to understand him, to see him for who he is. I wanted to portray him in a way that would allow people to feel for who he was and where he was coming from and try to bring some light to Hugh rather than purely seeing him as a villain. He is a person who follows his heart and acts out of love, despite the fact that it could be seen as quite controversial and may have serious consequences.

Above: Geoffrey Charles Poldark (Harry Marcus) and his governess Morwenna Chynoweth (Ellise Chappell).

"Morwenna is very conscientious and gentle," says Chappell, "but underneath the surface there is a little bit of fire and a rebellious streak that she doesn’t even know exists."

Above: Demelza (Eleanor Tomlinson) an her brothers Sam (Tom York) and Drake (Harry Richardson).

Above: Harry Richardson as Drake, Demelza's youngest brother.

Says Richardson about the experience of playing Drake Carne:

Drake has so much energy and exuberance and this incredible passion for life, which is exciting to play. He goes on this incredible journey from boy to man as he starts to realise what is important to him, what his beliefs are, where he stands on love and religion and life and where he is going to sit in society.

It is an incredible opportunity as an actor to go on a full, well-rounded journey.

Above: Tom York as Sam, Demelza's oldest brother and a dedicated Methodist.

Says York:

Sam is a fascinating character to explore because he has a powerful conviction that he carries with him; he is a fervent Methodist and is on a mission, as he perceives it, from God to save the souls of the people of Cornwall. It is very rare as a young man to get to play a part where there is a real principle.

Sam has had a tough life; he had an abusive father, his mother wasn’t around, he lives in poverty, his sister leaves and as the oldest of the family he is trying to look after everyone else. He soon finds this very dogmatic, rule based form of Christianity and it saves his life. In 1794 religion was such a powerful aspect and God is in everyone’s lives but especially in Sam’s.

Following is an excerpt from Winston Graham's fifth Poldark novel, The Black Moon, one of the two novels that provide the source material for season three of Poldark.

In this excerpt, Sam and Drake are carrying on their shoulders are large beam of timber through Warleggan property when they encounter Morwenna and Geoffrey Charles. Although not obvious at the time, it will prove to be a momentous meeting for Drake and Morwenna.

They were now on the same path they had taken from Illuggan in March, and they presently came to the fork in the track where in March they had attempted to cross some fields and had been turned back with ugly words by the Warleggan gamekeepers. They had never attempted to cross the fields since but both were well aware from later experience that the way through the fields and the two small woods beyond cut at least a mile off their journey. They stopped for a minute. There was no one in sight. You could not see Trenwith House or any of its buildings. There was a barn of some sort in the next field.

"I say risk it," said Drake. "They can't be everywhere all the time." So they crossed the field, which was grazing land, though not even cattle were to be seen this evening.

The second field was barley, and the old right of way ran across the middle of it towards the wood on the other side. The barley had been sown to ignore the old path, but in the main had not grown thickly over it, as if even ploughing had not destroyed the impress of years. They went through the middle, waiting every moment for the angry shout, even the shot.

It did not come. They lifted themselves over the broken stile into the wood.

From here it should be easier. They were not sure how far it was yet on private land, but they knew the path came out at the first cottages of Grambler village, and that could not be far. The whole of the wood which they now entered, which was perhaps half an acre in extent, was azure with bluebells. The young elm and sycamore leaves were bursting out in a brilliant pale green through which the slanting sunlight dappled the ground. Halfway was a clearing where a tree had recently fallen and only a few sprouting saplings grew. The caterpillar ends of bracken were thrusting up among the bluebells. The fallen tree and an old stone wall would provide a resting place for the beam.

"Let's stop for a while," said Drake. "My shoulder's fair crackin'."

"Not for long," said Sam. "I'd be easier out o' here." But he lowered the beam, took the piece of sacking off his shoulder and began to massage it.

They squatted a few minutes in sweating satisfaction. A thrush came down near them, balancing his fan of a tail, then chattered affrightedly and flew off. Some small animal, probably a squirrel, moved in the undergrowth but did not show itself. Overhead the sky was high and brilliant, as if it had never been exposed to the sun before.

"Phew! I've no sprawl to move yet," Drake said. "I reckon we shall've earned this piece o' driftwood by the time we get him home."

"Hush!" said Sam. "There's someone abroad."

They listened. At first there was no sound, then quite close someone was talking. The young men dived for cover. In the following pause a blackbird began to sing, his clear pellucid song taking no account of anything but the summer's evening. Then he too fluttered away as a rustling increased and there was the clack of a heel against stone.

Two people came into the clearing. One was a fair-haired boy of ten or eleven, the other a tall dark girl in a plain blue dress with muslin fichu and a straw hat in her hand. Held in the other arm was a sheaf of bluebells.

"Oh," said the boy in a clear voice. "Someone has cut a tree down! No, it has fallen! I wonder if they know . . . But what is this strange piece of wood?"

The girl fished in a pocket of her frock and took out a pair of steel-rimmed spectacles, which she put on to stare at the beam. "It looks like a piece from a barn – or a ship. Someone must have brought it here. Recently too, for the bluebells have all been stepped on."

She turned and peered around. Drake made a movement to show himself but Sam caught his arm. But the damage had been done: the young boy's sharp eyes had seen the yellow of Sam's kerchief.

"Who is it? Who's there? Come out! Show yourselves!" Although he spoke in a commanding tone the boy was nervous and took a step away as he spoke.

They came slowly out, dusting the broken twigs and bracken from their clothes, rubbing their hands down the side of their trousers.

"Day to you," said Drake, as ever politely pleasant in a crisis. "Sorry if we started you. We thought to rest awhile and had no wish to disturb no one."

"Who are you?" said the boy. "This is private property! Are you my uncle's men?"

"No, sur," said Drake. "Leastwise, thinkin' ye mean Mr Warleggan. No, sur. We was just carren this piece of timber from St. Ann's over to Mellin. Tis all of six mile and we thought to lay our burden down for a few minutes, for the beam is some heavy. I trust we done no wrong."

"You're trespassing," said the boy. "This is our land! Do you know what the penalties are for trespass?" The girl put her hand on the boy's arm but he shook it off.

"Beg pardon, sur, but we thought this was a right o' way. We seen the stile and years ago when we come this way there was naught to let or hinder us." Drake turned his open smiling face to the girl. "We intended no wrong, ma'am. Perhaps you'll kindly explain to young Mr Warleggan that we 'ad no thought to trespass on private land –"

"My name is not Warleggan," said the boy.

"Beg you pardon again. We thought as this was Warleggan land –"

"This is Poldark land and my name is Poldark," said the boy. "However, it is true that until a year ago village people were allowed to go this way, though never by right. It was only that my family had long been indulgent in such matters."

"Mr Poldark," said Drake. "If your name's Mr Poldark, young sur, then maybe you'll see fit to overlook this mistake, because we're related to Captain Ross Poldark, who, twouldn't be fanciful to suppose, may be related to you."

The boy looked at their working clothes. He had a high fresh colour and a natural arrogance of manner inherited from his father. He was tall for his age and rather plump; a good-looking boy but with a restive air.

"Related to my uncle, Captain Ross Poldark? In what way related?"

"Cap'n Poldark wife, Mistress Demelza Poldark, is our sister."

This was a statement rather beyond Geoffrey Charles's knowledge to refute, but he looked sceptical. "Where do you come from?"


"That's far away, isn't it?"

"Twelve mile maybe. But we don't live there now. We d'live at Nampara. That is, at Reath, just over the hill from Nampara. I'm working in the house for Cap'n Poldark, carpenter and the like. My brother Sam is down the mine."

The boy shrugged. "Mon Dieu. C'est incroyable."


"So perhaps it was my uncle who sent you to get this beam?"

Drake hesitated but Sam, who until now had let his younger and more charming brother do all the talking, interposed to remove the easy temptation. "I'm sorry, no. Your uncle didn't know anything nothing of this. But d'ye see, with the assistance and to the greater glory of God, we been building up an old cottage. We been working on it two month or more and wanted a long beam fourteen, fifteen foot long for to carry the roof. And this was washed in at St Ann's and we bought him and was carren home."

"Excuse the question, ma'am," Drake said. "But I b'lieve I see you at Grambler church most Sundays?"

She had taken off her spectacles again, and looked at him coldly with her soft, short-sighted beautiful eyes, "That may be so."

But Drake, however deferential, was hard to put down, "No offence meant, ma'am. None at all."

She inclined her head.

"In the second pew from the front," he said, "right-hand side. You have a rare handsome hymn book wi' a gold cross on him and gold edges to the leaves."

The girl put down her sheaf of bluebells. "Geoffrey Charles, as it was customary in the old days to come through the woods . . ."

But Geoffrey Charles was looking at the beam. "It is off a ship, isn't it? See, here is a hole that must have had a metal rod through it.
And the corner has been chiselled away. But all that will surely weaken it as a beam, won't it?"

"We reckon to cut that end off," said Drake. We only d'want fourteen feet and this is nigh on eighteen."

"So why did you not saw if off before you left St Ann's? It would have made it that much less heavy to carry." The boy chuckled at his own astuteness.

"Yes, but maybe we can find a use for the stump. Good oak be hard to come by. Where you've paid for him all ye dont like to take only the part."

"Is it very heavy?" The boy put his shoulder under the end that rested on the fallen tree and lifted. He went red in the face. "Mon Dieu,
vous avez raison

"Geoffrey!" said the girl starting forward. "You will hurt yourself!"

"That I will not," said Geoffrey, letting the end down again. "But it is heavy as lead! Have you already borne it more than two miles?
Try it, Morwenna, just try it!"

Morwenna said slowly: "It is only two fields after this wood to the public way again. You will see the old path still marked. But when you go do not loiter. "Thank you, ma'am," said Sam. "We're in your debt for that."

Her dark sober glance went over the two young men. "I think there will be two men in the furthest field now milking the cows. If you were to wait a half-hour they would then be gone and you would run less risk of being stopped."

"Thank you, ma'am. That's a kind thought. We're doubly in your debt."

"But before we go let us see you lift it!" cried Geoffrey Charles. "I cannot imagine you carrying it three miles more!"

The two brothers exchanged glances. "Aye, we'll do that," said Sam.

So, watched by the young woman and the young boy, they heaved it upon their shoulders. Geoffrey Charles nodded his approval. Then they lowered their burden again.

Geoffrey Charles, his earlier hostility gone, wanted to stay on, but Morwenna took him by the arm. "Come, your mother will wonder what has become of us. We shall be late for supper."

Smiling, Drake picked up the bluebells for her and put them into her arms. Geoffrey Charles said: "I have not seen my Uncle Ross for some time. Pray give him my respects."

Both the brothers bowed and then stood together watching Geoffrey Charles and his governess return through the trees the way they had come.


Morwenna Chynoweth said: "I think, Geoffrey, it might be -- advisable that we should say nothing of having met those young men."

"But why? They were doing no harm."

"Your Uncle George is strict about trespass. One should not want to get them into trouble."

"Agreed." He chuckled. "But they are strong! One day when I grow up I hope I shall be as strong."

"You will. If you eat well and go to bed early."

"Oh, that old tale. You know, Wenna, I wonder if there was a word of truth in their story of being related to Uncle Ross. Mama has told me that Aunt Demelza was low born, but I had not realized as low as that. It may well have been a fable to enlist our sympathy."

"I have seen them in church," said Morwenna. "I remember seeing them; but Captain Poldark comes so seldom that I have no way of knowing if they were in his pew. I think they sat at the back."

"The younger one is funny, isn't he? Such a funny smile. I wonder what their names are. I must ask Mama some time about Aunt Demelza."

"If you ask your mother about them she is sure to discover our secret."

"Yes . . . Yes, I am not good at keeping a secret, am I? So I will leave it a few days . . . Or why do you not ask? You are so much cleverer than me!"

By now they had reached the far side of the next field and the gate which led into the garden of Trenwith. The chimneys and gables of the house were to be seen among its surrounding trees. As Morwenna lifted the latch of the gate they heard footsteps behind. It was Drake halfway across the field running and leaping among the grass and stones to overtake them.

He came up smiling and gasping for breath. In his hands was a large bunch of bluebells, much larger than the one Morwenna carried. He handed them to her.

"All that time you wasted talking to we. You might've picked as many more so I've picked as many more. Thank ye, and good eve to you."

They stood and watched him trot back. Morwenna looked around to see if there was anyone about who might have observed him. Among the bluebells were pink ragged robin and white milkmaid. Having regard to the speed with which it had been done it was a pretty bouquet. Morwenna knew from his eyes that it was meant as a bouquet. She resented the impertinence, coming as it did from one of his station. But he had gone running and hopping back into the woods.

– Winston Graham
Excerpted from The Black Moon:
A Novel of Cornwall, 1794-1795

pp. 62-68

Finally, from Australia, here is ABC TV's trailer for Poldark, season three.

Related Off-site Links:
Meet the Cast and Characters of Season 3 of Poldark – Alex Flether (BT, June 9, 2017).
Poldark Stars Pose in Promo Shots for Third Series – Julia Pritchard (Daily Mail, June 5, 2017).
Poldark Season 3: French Revolution "Casts a Shadow" on Cornwall – Sachin Trivedi (International Business Times, May 31, 2017).
Is Poldark Going to End After 5 Seasons? – Ben Dowell (Radio Times, May 29, 2017).

UPDATES: Poldark Recap: Series Three, Episode One – Ross Gallops Back Into Our Lives – Viv Groskop (The Guardian, June 11, 2017).
Poldark Season 3 Review: Drama Returns with a Cursed Child, Two Deaths and a Truce – Jessica Earnshaw (Express, June 11, 2017).
Poldark Series 3, Episode 1 Review – Sally Newall (The Independent, June 11, 2017).
Poldark Series 3, Episode 1 Review: It's Getting Dark – Rob Smedley (Digital Spy, June 11, 2017).

See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
Return of the (Cornish) Native
"A Token of Wildness and Intractability"
Ross Poldark: Renegade of Principle
Poldark Rides Again
Poldark: Unfurling in Perfect Form
Thoughts on the PBS Premiere of Poldark
Meanwhile in Cornwall
The Renegade Returns

For more excerpts from the Poldark novels, see:
"Hers Would Be the Perpetual Ache of Loss and Loneliness"
Time and Remembrance in the Poldark Novels
Passion, Tide and Time
Demelza Takes a Chance (Part 1)
Demelza Takes a Chance (Part 2)
Captain Blamey Comes A-Calling
Rendezvous in Truro
A Fateful Reunion
A "Useful Marriage" for Morwenna
A Sea Dragon of an Emotion . . . "Causing Half the Trouble of the World, and Half the Joy"
Into the Greenwood
"I Want You to Become a Part of Me – Each to Become a Part of the Other"

Images: Mammoth Screen/BBC.